Review of ‘Delete’ on

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delete cover

The following review of Delete was posted on on 20 March 2014:


Zombie Tech
A gloriously geeky roll in the hay of unfulfilled techno dreams, courtesy of Delete: A Design History of Vapourware by Paul AtkinsonWords by Peter Maxwell

The term vapourware describes “computer dreams, feasible concepts, prototypes, or failed products”; in short, items of technology that didn’t make it to market. They may have proved too costly, taken too long, or merely been marketing ploys, but you would be misguided to assume that these phantom computers were without consequence. What they represent, according to design historian Paul Atkinson, is the “agency of ideas” that have driven wider trends in an industry that often struggles to keep up with itself.

Delete: A Design History of Vapourware is a publication charged with scrutinizing such inscrutables. If you hadn’t already noticed, design criticism has a few major blind spots. The more ubiquitous an object, the less likely it seems to be examined, let alone subjected to the sort of prolonged formal scrutiny afforded to the expensive, famous and scarce trappings that few share. Consumer electronics are a case in point: apart from, say, Richard Sapper’s televisions for Brionvega or Mario Bellini’s sound equipment for Yamaha, it is rare that these predominately black or brown boxes fall within the remit of design history. (Accepting the resurgent interest, thanks to Sir Jonathan Ives patronage, in Dieter Rams oeuvre, especially his work for German manufacturer Braun; however, this manifests as a general appreciation of a Ramsian style rather than an acknowledgment of specific objects).

Atkinson is one of the few who are working to cover these gaps. In 2010 he released a much-needed volume on the Computer, part of Reaktion Books’ Objekt series. In opposition to the multiple volumes on the technological advance of these machines, Atkinson offered a comprehensive history of the design and “social construction” of an object in whose physical presence we spend an increasing amount of time. This volume also proved an useful photographic compendium of a newly domesticated appliance that we are more aware of looking through than at.

Now Atkinson has written a second volume, this time produced by Bloomsbury, but which is a direct extension of that first project. Delete introduces devices that you will never have seen first-hand, but whose indirect presence have played an important role in the way we all live with technology, both at work and at home.

The book begins with an entertaining section on imagined machines and then moves through four chapters that group objects by typology – mainframes, personal computers, pen computers and mobile computers. The book is full of vital images and marketing material for products that we would otherwise be unlikely to view; Atkinson’s accompanying text doesn’t make light reading, but it is full of hard-won research and fascinating detail. Admittedly, the fact that an early iteration of Apple’s Newton was nicknamed “Batman” and had a cover inspired by the hood of a Corvette may not be of interest to everyone, but in the context of the larger narrative relayed here these points take on significance.

There are some definite revelations, too: Tom Hardy’s IBM Yellow Bird and Aquarius computers are each as beguiling an arrangement of keys, buttons and bright plastic as anything Ettore Sottsass ever produced for Olivetti; Bill Moggridge and John Eliot’s CTL Modular Three Minicomputer achieved a soft-edged Modernism to rival the best of what Jacob Jensen was producing for Bang & Olufsen during the same period.

It is interesting to read this book against a current climate in which the form factor of certain popular devices is obsessively preempted by the media in the run-up to launch day. Dedicated enthusiasts even make complex maquettes based on spurious gossip. Vapourware now haunts thousands of online forums as amateur futurologists argue about beveled edges. There is an enthusiastic discussion taking place here, one that academics should not ignore. Delete may seem to be the preserve of the anoraks, but it is also an important precursor to that discussion; as an act of recuperative design history it has a great deal of value.

Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware, Paul Atkinson
Published by Bloomsbury, £24.99


The full review, along with images, can be read on here:


ICON Magazine article on vapourware

Icon-April-00-14-pOFC-REV1[1]April’s issue of ICON magazine has a six-page article featuring examples of vapourware from my book ‘Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware’

If you can, get hold of a copy of the original magazine, but if not, you can downlaod an individual copy of the article here: Icon-April-00-14-p070-REV1.

3D Printing – the Craft of the Future?

I gave the keynote lecture at a public presentation last week (5 March) in Vienna, Austria to the city’s Chamber of Commerce. The subject was 3D printing and the likely impact that the new technology might have in economic, social and ethical terms.


The evening event was held in the impressive conference room at the offices of Vienna’s largest bank, Erste Bank, and was organised by Creative Industries Austria. It was very well attended, with all three invited speakers getting a ggod response and a lot of questions. The networking event that followed the talks was very useful too..

You can access the webpage hosting a slideshow of the lecture here

And the video of the talk itself is on youtube

Eye Magazine listing of ‘Delete’

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Eye Magazine has listed ‘Delete’ on its website:

web image of actual cover

Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware (Bloomsbury, £24.99) recalls the many failed prototypes of early computing. Author Paul Atkinson clarifies the problematic term ‘vapourware’ and the marketing conventions that surround it, before taking a thematic look at  unrealised examples of design. Ad campaigns, in their fully realised nonexistence, add further spin to this alternate reality.

Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware

delete cover

An advance copy of ‘Delete’ has just arrived in the post this morning from Bloomsbury. The printing quality is excellent, and I’m really happy with the way the book has turned out. Thanks to everyone concerned who helped with this project. Advance copies have been sent to various magazines, so hopefully reviews will start appearing soon. The bulk of the print run arrives with Bloomsbury in a few weeks time, and its official release date is 29th August in the UK and 24th October in the US.

Initial reviews of ‘Delete’

“Paul Atkinson’s DELETE is a veritable design museum of what might have been in computer products. The abandoned concepts and prototypes that serve as his well-chosen exhibits attest to the evolutionary nature of technological development, complete with failed experiments and extinct species from which much can still be learned. In all, Atkinson makes a compelling case that the word vaporware need not always be considered a pejorative.” –  Henry Petroski, author of The Evolution of Useful Things and To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure and Professor at Duke Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, USA,

DELETE is a stunning addition to the literature of the history of technology. This book is the first to engage with the important topics of industrial design and product failure in the computer industry, although its lessons have a much wider resonance. Deeply researched and lavishly illustrated in colour, it is a pleasure to read and to browse.” –  Martin Campbell-Kelly, emeritus professor of computer science, Warwick University, UK,

“For Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware, Professor Paul Atkinson brings together his extensive knowledge of design practice and design history.He has an eye for exploring new and important narratives and its one of my favourite books for 2013.” –  Catherine McDermott, Professor at Kingston University, London,

More details can be found on Bloomsbury’s website.

Paperweight Radio: The Ghosts of Visual & Material Culture

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On the 15th March I travelled down to London to take part in a radio interview on Resonance FM, the London-based Arts Radio Station to promote the new book. The programme was a pilot for a new regular show hosted by Juliette Kristensen to tie in with the excellent publication Paperweight, the newspaper of Visual and Material Culture. As it turned out, it was a really pleasurable experience!

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Fot this pilot episode, the theme was ‘Ghosts’ (tying in with the second issue of the newpaper, in which I had an article titled ‘Ghost in the Machine’, describing what ‘vapourware’ is). In all there were four guests: myself talking about the ghostly computer products that are Vapourware, the parageographer James Thurgill on haunted places; the collector and curator Brad Feuerhelm on occult photography; and ninteenth century literature and culture scholar Clare Pettitt on the nineteenth century telegraphic imaginary.

A recording of the whole programme (1hr) is available through soundcloud – although the first section, in which I discuss Delete and  the concept of Vapourware, is 16 mins long. If you have a few minutes to spare, have a listen….

Delete – advance publicity

I haven’t posted for a short while, as I’ve been really busy getting the manuscript for my new book finished and off to the publishers. Now it’s with them it takes a year to go through all the production process stages before its printed and ready for purchase, so it should be in the shops in August 2013. The cover is designed, though, and advance notice for the book has been released by Bloomsbury:

Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware
Paul Atkinson

While most historical accounts of the development of computer design focus on specific computers or manufacturers, examining the success stories of hardware and operating systems, Delete: A Design History of Computer Vapourware creates a completely new narrative by investigating the machines that didn’t make it.
Fascinating, full-colour images of computer designs, many of them previously unpublished, are accompanied by the hitherto untold stories of their planning and development, the pitfalls and successes in their creation, the market and competition at the time and the reasons why they never finally appeared for sale.
Appealing both to a broad audience and to a more specialist one of designers and computer historians, Delete, with its unique collection of prototypes that never made it to the market, depicts a technological world that might have been.
The full details can be found here at Bloomsbury’s website.

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